Pius IX (born Giovanni Maria Mastai Ferretti; 13 May 1792 – 7 February 1878) was head of the Catholic Church from 1846 to 1878, the longest verifiable papal reign. After starting as a liberal he reversed positions and strongly condemned liberalism. He was notable for convoking the First Vatican Council in 1868 and for permanently losing papal control of the Papal States in 1870 to the Kingdom of Italy. He refused to leave Vatican City, declaring himself a "prisoner of the Vatican". His diplomacy mixes many failures with some successes such as Austria-Hungary, Portugal, Spain, Canada, Tuscany, Ecuador, Venezuela, Honduras, El Salvador, and Haiti.

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